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Monday, July 15, 2024
HomeWomen's HealthHow HIV Impacts Menopause and Menopause Impacts HIV

How HIV Impacts Menopause and Menopause Impacts HIV

When Vickie Lynn discovered she was HIV optimistic in 1991 on the age of 21, she thought she’d been given a dying sentence. She definitely by no means imagined she’d stay lengthy sufficient to see a milestone that impacts girls later in life — menopause.

Now 57 years previous and solidly postmenopausal, Lynn nonetheless remembers how arduous it was to discover a healthcare supplier (HCP) who would take her menopause signs critically.

“I used to be having signs that no one actually understood, or they did not join them to menopause,” Lynn mentioned.

Coping with the stress of engaged on her doctorate diploma throughout perimenopause didn’t assist the scenario, and Lynn herself struggled to pinpoint the reason for her signs.

“Is it the HIV, the menopause or the Ph.D.? There was loads happening, and no one might give me any straight solutions,” Lynn mentioned. “It was a really tough time.”

Because of a sort of therapy known as antiretroviral remedy (ART), extra individuals are dwelling longer lives with HIV. Virtually half of these with HIV in america are 50 or older.

For ladies, getting older with HIV might pose distinctive well being challenges, together with through the menopausal transition. And an absence of analysis on how menopause impacts girls dwelling with HIV — coupled with a scarcity of suppliers who perceive how greatest to deal with these girls — might make it arduous for menopausal girls dwelling with HIV to seek out the help and care they want.

Watch “The three Levels of Menopause” >>

When does menopause begin, and why does it matter?

For ladies dwelling with HIV, it may be difficult to inform when menopause begins. It’s because many ladies with HIV have irregular intervals associated to medical situations related to HIV, mentioned Sara Looby, Ph.D., ANP-BC, a researcher at Massachusetts Normal Hospital in Boston and an assistant professor of medication at Harvard Medical Faculty.

“It is actually necessary for clinicians to not assume that it is true menopause when missed intervals happen,” Looby mentioned. “They need to additionally assess different elements in addition to menopause — together with psychosocial, behavioral and bodily well being modifications — that girls dwelling with HIV may be experiencing that might result in missed intervals.”

That mentioned, some analysis suggests that girls with HIV begin menopause three to 5 years before different girls. That is value noting as a result of the sooner a lady goes by means of menopause, the sooner she begins to lose the protecting results of estrogen in opposition to coronary heart illness, temper modifications, bone loss and different well being points. Since girls with HIV are already extra prone to expertise these points, menopause could make them additional susceptible.

Researchers have additionally discovered that the drop in estrogen that occurs throughout menopause might have an effect on a lady’s CD4 cell rely. CD4 cells are white blood cells that play an necessary position in immune well being, and your CD4 cell rely is an efficient indicator of how effectively your immune system is functioning. The decrease your variety of CD4 cells, the weaker your immune system, and the larger your threat of creating severe diseases.

Residing with HIV might imply worse menopause signs 

Not solely may girls with HIV begin menopause sooner in comparison with different girls, however their signs could also be worse. “There have been conflicting outcomes, however there are numerous research so far that recommend that girls with HIV might expertise extra frequent and extreme sizzling flashes in comparison with girls with out HIV,” Looby mentioned.

Looby was concerned in analysis on the subject: She and a workforce of researchers did a examine involving 33 girls with HIV and 33 with out HIV who have been related in age, race and menstrual patterns. They discovered that the ladies with HIV had worse sizzling flashes and that these sizzling flashes have been extra prone to disrupt their lives.

One other examine discovered that menopausal signs doubtlessly have an effect on a affected person’s capability to take antiretroviral remedy (ART) as prescribed. And a 3rd examine checked out 714 girls in Nigeria with and with out HIV and located that menopause signs have been usually worse within the girls dwelling with HIV and that these girls have been 3 times extra prone to have extreme signs.

Discovering care is usually a problem

As arduous as it could be for ladies to deal with the twin challenges of HIV and menopause, it could be even more durable to seek out assist.

Even HCPs who concentrate on menopause might lack expertise on the subject of treating girls dwelling with HIV, and never many HIV specialists are additionally consultants on menopause.

“For ladies in america who’ve lived with HIV for a very long time — their main care physician is commonly an infectious illness supplier,” Looby mentioned. “These suppliers are phenomenal at managing their sufferers’ HIV and lots of elements of their main care, although many will not be essentially skilled to evaluate, diagnose and deal with menopause.”

Suppliers who do deal with menopausal girls dwelling with HIV could also be reluctant to prescribe remedies resembling hormone remedy (HT) — also called hormone substitute remedy or HRT — as a result of they’re fearful about drug interactions and different points, and sufferers could also be reluctant to take them. In a single examine of greater than 800 menopausal girls dwelling with HIV, solely 8 out of 100 mentioned they used HT through the transition.

That is true despite the truth that, beneath the correct circumstances, HT might assist some girls dwelling with HIV handle menopause signs and enhance their high quality of life.

“I feel there’s plenty of concern in prescribing menopausal hormone substitute remedy to particular populations, together with girls with HIV, as a result of there’s a lack of knowledge exhibiting security and efficacy on this inhabitants,” Looby mentioned. “Extra analysis and schooling on each menopause and hormone remedy are wanted for ladies with HIV and their suppliers to assist help shared decision-making.”

Looby additionally famous that HCPs for ladies with HIV ought to fastidiously contemplate a person’s well being threat elements together with current pointers for menopausal hormone use in girls with out HIV. This cautious consideration performs an necessary position in serving to sufferers and their suppliers make knowledgeable selections collectively.

Info is essential to dealing with menopause when you’ve gotten HIV

When Lynn was menopausal and attempting to grasp what was occurring to her physique, she was discouraged by the final ignorance about HIV and menopause.

“Not even with the ability to discover any analysis literature on what I used to be going by means of was very irritating for me,” Lynn mentioned.

So the place ought to girls dwelling with HIV flip for assist navigating the twists and turns of menopause? Lynn, a public well being and social work skilled who has spent the previous three many years advocating for HIV points, suggests reaching out to organizations, resembling The Nicely Challenge, that may present info in addition to connections to different individuals who perceive what they’re going by means of.

“I want that each community-based group that serves folks dwelling with HIV had a specialist on menopause or getting older,” Lynn mentioned. “There’s so many people which might be getting older, and so little is understood. We’re nonetheless studying.”

This useful resource was created with help from Gilead.

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